Leonard Bickman

Leonard Bickman


  • Ph.D., Social Psychology City University of New York, New York, NY
  • M.A., Experimental Psychopathology, Columbia University, New York, NY
  • B.S., Psychology, City College of New York, New York, NY

Research Interests

Leonard Bickman is currently a research professor at Vanderbilt University, where he taught for 32 years, and Florida International University. He was a Senior Policy Advisor at the U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration where his contribution was recognized with the Secretary’s Award for Distinguished Service.

He is coeditor of two handbooks on social research methods and a social research methods series for Sage Publications. He is editor in chief of the journal Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research. He has published more than 15 books and monographs, and 200 articles and chapters. He has received several awards recognizing the contributions of his research including: a Fulbright Senior Scholarship, The American Psychological Association’s Public Interest Award for Distinguished Contribution to Research in Public Policy, and the Education and Training in Psychology Award for Distinguished Contributions, Vanderbilt University’s Earl Sutherland Prize for Achievement in Research, and the American Evaluation Association Outstanding Evaluation Award and the Association’s Alva and Gunnar Myrdal Evaluation Practice Award. He is a past president of the American Evaluation Association and the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues.

His research interests include program evaluation, web-based outcomes measurement systems, the organizational and psychological factors that influence professionals’ practice behavior and the effectiveness of Institutional Review Boards.

Select Publications

Goff, P. T., Guthrie, J. E., Goldring, E., & Bickman, L. (In Press). Changing Principals’ Leadership through Feedback and Coaching. Journal of Educational Administration.

Bickman, L., (2013), Facing Reality and Jumping the Chasm, Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 40(1), 1-5.

Bickman, L., Douglas Kelley, S. & Athay, M., (2012) The Technology of Measurement Feedback Systems. Couple and Family Psychology: Research and Practice, 1(4) 274-284.

Gold, P.B., Jones, D.R., Macias, C., Bickman, L., Hargreaves, W.A., & Frey, J. (2012). A four-year retrospective study of assertive community treatment change to more frequent, briefer client contact. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 76, 314-328. DOI:10.1521/bumc.2012.76.4.314

Bickman, L., Wighton, L.G., Lambert, E.W., Karver, M., & Steding, L., (2012), Problems in Using Diagnosis in Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services Research, Journal of Methods and Measurement in the Social Sciences, 3(1), 1-26.

Vuchinich, S., Flay, B. R., Aber, L. & Bickman, L. (2012) Person Mobility in the Design and Analysis of Cluster-Randomized Cohort Prevention Trials, Prevention Sciences, 13(3), 300-13.

Riemer, M., Athay, M.M., Bickman, L., Breda, C., Kelley, S.D., & Vides de Andrade, A.R. (2012). The Peabody Treatment Progress Battery: History and Methods for Developing a Comprehensive Measurement Battery for Youth Mental Health. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 39 (1-2), 3-12.

Bickman, L. (2012) Why Can’t Mental Health Services be More Like Modern Baseball? Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 39 (1-2), 1-2. Scholer S.J., Reich S.M., Boshers R.B., Bickman L. (2012) A brief program improves counseling of mothers with children who have persistent aggression. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 27(6), 991-1004.

Athay, M.M., Riemer, M., & Bickman, L. (2012) The Symptoms and Functioning Severity Scale (SFSS): Psychometric Evaluation and Differences of Youth, Caregiver, and Clinician Ratings over Time. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 39 (1-2), 13-29.

Bickman, L., Vides de Andrade, A.R., Athay, M.M., Chen, J.I., De Nadai, A.S., Jordan-Arthur, B., & Karver, M.S. (2012) The relationship between change in therapeutic alliance ratings and improvement in youth symptom severity: Whose ratings matter the most? Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 39 (1-2), 78-89.

Kelley, S.D., Vides de Andrade, A.R., Bickman, L., & Robin, A. (2012) The Session Report Form (SRF): Are clinicians addressing issues of concern to youth and caregivers? Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research,

Athay, M.M., & Bickman, L. (2012) The Service Satisfaction Scale: Psychometric Evaluation and Determinants of Youth and Parent Satisfaction in Community Mental Health Treatment, Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 39 (1-2), 71-77

Shekelle, P., Pronovost, P., Wachter, R., Taylor, S., Dy, S., Foy, Robbie, M., Hempel, S., McDonald, K., Ovretveit, J., Rubenstein, L., Adams, A., Angood, P., Bates, D., Bickman, L., Carayon, P., Donaldson, L., Duan, N., Farley, D., Greenhalgh, T., Haughom, J., Lake, E., Lilford, R., Lohr, K., Meyer, G., Miller, M., Neuhauser, D., Ryan, G., Saint, S., Shojania, K., Shortell, S., Stevens, D., & Walshe, K. (2011), Advancing the Science of Patient Safety, Annals Of Internal Medicine 154(10) P.693-W248 DOI: 10.1059/0003-4819-154-10-201105170-00011

Bickman, L., Kelley, S., Breda, C., De Andrade, A, & Riemer, M. (2011), Effects of routine feedback to clinicians on youth mental health outcomes: A randomized cluster design, Psychiatric Services, 62(12), p. 1423-1429.

King, R., Bickman, L., Shochet, I., McDermott B., & Bor, B., (2010) Use of the internet for provision of better counselling and psychotherapy services to young people, their families and carers. Psychotherapy in Australia. 17(1), p. 62-70

Bickman, L., & Hoagwood, K. R. (2010). Introduction to special issue. Making the Real World Ideal: Changing Practices in Children’s Mental Health Services. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 37(1-2), 4-6. doi:10.1007/s10488-010-0289-9

Garland, A. F., Bickman, L., & Chorpita, B. F. (2010). Change what? Identifying quality improvement targets by investigating usual mental health care. Making the Real World Ideal: Changing Practices in Children’s Mental Health Services. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 37(1-2), 15-26. doi:10.1007/s10488-010-0279-y

Kelley, S.D., Vides de Andrade, A.R., Sheffer, E., & Bickman, L. (2010). Exploring the black box: Measuring youth treatment process and progress in usual care. Psychotherapy Practice in Usual Care [Special issue]. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 37(3), 287-300. doi:10.1007/s10488-010-0298-8

Reich, S. M., Bickman, L., Saville, B. R., & Alvarez, J. (2010). The effectiveness of baby books for providing pediatric anticipatory guidance to new mothers. Pediatrics, 125(5), 997-1002. PMCID: PMC2875122 doi:10.1542/peds.2009-2728

Bickman, L., Riemer, M., Brown, J. L., Jones, S. M., Flay, B. R., Li, K.-K., et al. (2009). Approaches to measuring implementation fidelity in school-based social and character development program. Journal of Research in Character Education, 7(2), 75-101.

Foster, E. M., Wiley-Exley, E., & Bickman, L. (2009). Old wine in new skins: The sensitivity of established findings to new methods. Evaluation Review, 33, 281-306. doi:10.1177/0193841X09334028

Kelley, S. D. & Bickman, L. (2009). Beyond outcomes monitoring: Measurement feedback systems in child and adolescent clinical practice. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 22, 363-368. PMCID: PMC2844849 doi:10.1097/YCO. 0b013e32832c9162

Macias, C., Aronson, E., Hargreaves, W., Weary, G., Barreira, P. J., Harvey, J., Rodican, C. F., Bickman, L., & Fisher, W. (2009). Transforming dissatisfaction with services into self-determination: A social psychological perspective on community program effectiveness. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 39, 1835-1859. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.2009.00506.x

Macias, C., Gold, P. B., Hargreaves, W., Aronson, E., Bickman, L., Barreira, P. J., Jones, D. R., Rodican, C. F., & Fisher, W. (2009). Preference in random assignment: Implications for the intervention or randomized trials. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 36(5), 331-342. doi:10.1007/s10488-009-0224-0

Bickman, L. (2008). A measurement feedback system (MFS) is necessary to improve mental health outcomes. Journal of the American Association of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47, 1114-1119. doi:10.1097/CHI.0b013e3181825af8

Bickman, L. (2008, July23/30). The science of quality improvement [Letter to the editor]. JAMA, 300, p. 391. doi:10.1001/jama.300.4.391-a

Bickman, L. (2008). Why don't we have effective mental health services? [Editorial]. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 35, 437-439. doi:10.1007/s10488-008-0192-9

Mulvaney, S. A., Bickman, L., Giuse, N.B., Lambert, E. W., Sathe, N. A., & Jerome, R. N. (2008). A randomized effectiveness trial of a clinical informatics consult service: Impact on evidence based decision-making and knowledge implementation. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 15, 203-211. doi:10.1197/jamia.M2461

Scholer, S. J., Walkowski, C. A., & Bickman, L. (2008). Voluntary or required viewing of violence prevention program in pediatric primary care. Clinical Pediatrics, 47, 461-468. doi:10.1177/0009922807311731

Brown, T. N., Ueno, K., Smith, C. L., Austin, N. S., & Bickman, L. (2007). Communication patterns in medical encounters for the treatment of child psychosocial problems: Does pediatrician-parent concordance matter? Health Communication, 2, 247-256.

Bickman, L. (2006). My life as an applied social psychologist. Current Psychology, 25(3), 67-92.

Karver, M. S., Handelsman, J., Fields, S., & Bickman, L. (2006). Meta-analysis of therapeutic relationship variables in youth and family therapy: The evidence for different relationship variables in the child and adolescent treatment outcome literature. Clinical Psychology Review, 26(1), 50-65.

Bickman, L. (2005). A common factors approach to improving mental health services. Mental Health Services Research, 7(1), 1-4.

Dew, S. E. & Bickman, L. (2005). Client expectancies about therapy. Mental Health Services Research, 7(1): 21-33.

Karver, M. S., Handelsman, J. B., Fields, S., & Bickman, L. (2005). A theoretical model of common process factors in youth and family therapy. Mental Health Services Research, 7(1): 35-51.

King, R., Bickman, L., Nurcombe, B., Hides, L., & Reid, W. (2005). The impact of poster advertising in buses on young people's awareness and knowledge of a telephone counselling service. Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 16(1), 74-77.

Macias, C., Barreira, P., Hargreaves, W., Bickman, L., Fisher, W., & Aronson, E. (2005). Impact of referral source and study applicants’ preference for randomly assigned service on research enrollment, service engagement, and evaluative outcomes. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(4), 781-787.

Riemer, M., Rosof-Williams, J., & Bickman, L. (2005). Theories related to changing clinician practice. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14(2), 241-254, viii.

Sapyta, J., Riemer, M., & Bickman, L. (2005). Feedback to clinicians: Theory, research & practice. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 61(2), 145-153.

Scholer, S. J., Reich, S. M., Boshers, R. B., & Bickman, L. (2005). A multimedia violence prevention program increases pediatric residents and childcare providers' knowledge about responding to childhood aggression. Clinical Pediatrics, 44(5), 413-417.

Wolraich, M. L., Bickman, L., Lambert, E. W., Simmons, T., & Doffing, M. A. (2005). Intervening to improve communication among parents, teachers, and primary care providers of children with ADHD or at high risk for ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 9(1), 354-368.

Bickman, L., Andrade, A. R., Lambert, E. W., Doucette, A., Sapyta, J. & Boyd, A. S. Rumberger, D.T., Moore-Kurnot, J., McDonough, L.C. & Rauktis, M.B. (2004). Youth therapeutic alliance in intensive treatment settings. Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 31(2), 134-148.

Hinshaw, S., Hoagwood, K., Jensen, P., Kratochvil, C., Bickman, L., Clarke, G., Abikoff, H. B., Atkins, M, & Vitello, B. (2004). AACC 2001 Research Forum: Challenges and recommendations regarding recruitment and retention of participants in research investigations. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(8), 1037-1045.

Lambert, E. W., & Bickman, L. (2004). Child & Adolescent Psychiatry: The clock setting cure: How children might improve after ineffective treatment. Psychiatric Services, 55(4), 381-382.

Reich, S., Bickman, L., & Heflinger, C.A. (2004). Covariates of self-efficacy: Caregiver characteristics related to mental health services self-efficacy. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 12(2), 99-108.

Wolraich, M. L , Lambert, W. E., Bickman, L., Simmons, T., Doffing, M.A., Worley, K. A. (2004) Assessing the impact of parent and teacher agreement on diagnosing ADHD. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 25(1), 41-47.

Bickman, L., Smith, C. M., Lambert, E. W., & Andrade, A. R. (2003). Evaluation of a congressionally mandated wraparound demonstration. Featured article. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 12(2), 135-156.

King, R., Nurcombe, B., Bickman, L., Hides, L. & Reid, W. (2003). Telephone counselling for adolescent suicide prevention: Changes in suicidality and mental state from beginning to end of a counselling session. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 33(4), 400-411.

Wolraich, M., Lambert, E. W., Baumgaertel, A., Garcia-Tornel, S., Feurer, I., Rutababalira, A., & Bickman, L. (2003). Teacher’s screening for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Comparing multinational samples on teacher ratings of ADHD. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31(4), 445-455.

Wolraich, M.L., Lambert, E. W., Doffing, M. A., Bickman, L., Simmons T., & Worley, K. (2003). Psychometric properties of the Vanderbilt ADHD Diagnostic Parent Rating Scale. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 28(8), 559-568.

Bickman, L. (2002). The death of treatment as usual: An excellent first step on a long road. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 9(2), 195-199.

Bickman, L., Andrade, A. R., & Lambert, E. W. (2002). Dose response in child and adolescent mental health services. Mental Health Services Research, 4(2). 57-70.

Bickman, L., & Fitzpatrick, J.L. (2002). Evaluation of the Ft. Bragg and Stark County systems of care for children and adolescents: A dialogue with Len Bickman. American Journal of Evaluation, 23(1), 69-80.

Karver, M. S., & Bickman, L. (2002). Positive functioning: Does it add validity to maladaptive functioning items? Evaluation and Program Planning, 25(1), 85-93.

Lambert, E. W., Doucette, A., & Bickman, L. (2001). Measuring mental health outcomes with pre-post designs. Journal of Behavioral Health Services Research, 28(3), 273-286.

Lambert, E. W., Wahler, R. G., Andrade, A. R., & Bickman, L. (2001). Looking for the disorder in conduct disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110(1), 110-123.

Andrade, A. R., Lambert, E. W., & Bickman, L. (2000). Dose effect in child psychotherapy: Outcomes associated with negligible treatment. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 39(2), 161-168.

Bickman, L. (2000). Our quality assurance methods aren’t so sure. Behavioral Health Tomorrow, 9(3), 41-42.

Bickman, L. (2000). Improving children’s mental health: How no effects can affect policy. Report on Emotional & Behavioral Disorders in Youth: Evidence-based Assessment, Interventions for the Real World, 3-4, 21-23.

Bickman, L. (2000). Summing up program theory. In P. Rogers, T. Hacsi, A. Petrosino, & T. Huebner (Eds.), New Directions for Evaluation, 87, 103-112.

Bickman, L., Lambert, E. W., Andrade, A. R., & Penaloza, R. (2000). The Fort Bragg Continuum of Care for children and adolescents: Mental health outcomes over five years. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(4), 710-716.

Bickman, L., Rosof, J., Salzer, M. S., Summerfelt, W. T., Noser, K., Wilson, S. J., & Karver, M. S. (2000). What information do clinicians value for monitoring adolescent client progress and outcome? Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 31(1), 70-74.

Foster, E. M., & Bickman, L. (2000). Refining the costs analyses of the Fort Bragg Evaluation: The impact of cost offset and cost shifting. Mental Health Services Research, 2(1), 13-25.

Hoagwood, K., Horwitz, S., Stiffman, A., Weisz, J., Bean, D., Rae, D., Compton, W., Cottler, L., Bickman, L., & Leaf, P. (2000). Concordance between parent reports of children’s mental health services and service records: The Services Assessment for Children and Adolescents (SACA). Journal of Child and Family Studies, 9(3), 315-331.

King, R. D., Gaines, L. S., Lambert, E. W., Summerfelt, W. T., & Bickman, L. (2000). The co-occurrence of psychiatric and substance use diagnoses in adolescents in different service systems: Frequency, recognition, cost, and outcomes. Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 27(4), 417-430.

Noser, K., & Bickman, L. (2000). Quality indicators of children’s mental health services: Do they predict improved client outcomes? Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 8(1), 9-18, 26.

Nurcombe, B., Wooding, S., Marrington, P., & Bickman, L. (2000). Child sexual abuse II: Treatment. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 34, 92-97.